• T is the less common allele. This variant causes a lower level of PGC-1a protein including in muscles [RRR].
  • The T allele results in a less efficient coactivator of transcription factors, including those that regulate the PPARGC1A gene itself [R].

The T (minor) allele is associated with:

  • Increased blood pressure (for those under 50).
  • Earlier onset of Huntington's [RR].
  • Increased levels of fatty acids (may be more difficult to clear fatty acids after consuming glucose) [R].
  • Increased LDL cholesterol [R].
  • Greater weight gain in men being treated for type 1 diabetes (given insulin) [R].
  • Reduced inclination toward aerobic exercise [R].
  • Increased muscular strength/power [R, R].
  • Increased insulin resistance [R, R, R].
  • Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes [R, R, R].
  • Increased risk of fatty liver disease and increased liver ALT enzymes [R].
  • Signs of metabolic syndrome [R].
  • Sarcoidosis [R].
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [R].

The C (major) allele is associated with:

  • Increased longevity [R].
  • Insomnia, especially under the influence of ApoE4 [R].


Parent Gene: PPARGC1A

Importance: 4
Less common allele: T = 27%
More common allele: C = 73%
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