This gene results in functional changes of the receptor in cells [R].
- Higher levels of binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AA) [R].
- Increased levels of receptor binding (A) [R].
- Normal levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding (G) [R].
The G (minor) allele is associated with:
Early tobacco addiction [R].(G allele likely)
- Decreased ability to stop smoking [R].
The A (major) allele is associated with:
- Decreased maximal response to a nicotine activator [R].
- Increased nicotine dependence [R] and propensity to smoke [R].
- Increased risk of lung cancer in both smokers and nonsmokers (not statistically significant in nonsmokers) [R][R][R].
- Increased cigarette consumption of 0.9 cigarettes per day [R] and 1 year increased time of smoking (42 vs. 43) [R].
- Greater cancer-causing nitrosamine extraction per cigarette dose [R].
- Increased risk of tumors developing in squamous cells and epithelial tissue in the lungs [R].
- Increased unregulated cell division and programmed cell death [R].