• Adenosine has both positive and negative effects. Adenosine increases minimum lifespan but reduces maximum lifespan. It's believed that elevated cellular concentrations of adenosine reduce heart disease risk and can help during a stroke (R).

Mechanism:

  • T allele causes less ADA activity due to an amino acid substitution (R).

The T (minor) allele is associated with:

  • 35% lower levels of ADA. People with the T allele show a higher level of both circulating adenosine and adenosine inside cells (R).

  • Reduced conversion of adenosine to inosine , which serves as an antioxidant and stimulant. Only 5% of the alleles in the global population are T, so it's relatively rare. More adenosine translates into increased slow-wave sleep in individuals with the T allele (R).

  • Worsened performance on a test of attention among right-handed carriers (R).

  • Reduced attention and vigor when awake.  Also, EEG alpha activity (8.5-12 Hz), sleepiness, fatigue, and α-amylase in saliva were enhanced (R).

  • Significantly higher deep sleep and EEG 0.75- to 1.5-Hz oscillations in non-REM sleep. When awake, attention and vigor were reduced. EEG alpha activity (8.5-12 Hz), sleepiness, fatigue, and Œ-amylase in saliva were enhanced (R).

  • Better sleep, but more fatigue in the day due to higher adenosine levels.

  • Lower telomerase activity (R), which will cause shorter telomeres.

  • A higher likelihood for males to live between 66-88 years, but a lower likelihood for men to live longer than 88 years (R). It’s believed that elevated cellular concentrations of adenosine reduce heart disease risk, as well as help during a stroke (R).

  • Higher rates of glycolysis, which may increase the number of metabolic calories and, in turn, reduce activation of Sirtuin genes (R).

rs73598374

Parent Gene: ADA

Importance: 5
Less common allele: T = 5%
More common allele: C = 95%
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