C=higher risk for alcohol dependence [ADH1C gene. The (A) allele is the more common, encoding the amino acid isoleucine (Ile); the quite rare (T) allele encodes the variant phenylalanine (Phe). On it's own, this SNP is said to explain 12.3% of the variability in the rate at which alcohol is metabolized, based on a study of 250 Spaniards.[gs211 genoset. Note that the effects of alcohol are higher in individuals who break down (basically, detoxify) ethanol more slowly. [PMID 19861527] Impact of multiple alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a Japanese population [PMID 21437268] A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium [PMID 22675424] ADH1C Ile350Val Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: Evidence from 35 Case-Control Studies [PMID 12050823] A global perspective on genetic variation at the ADH genes reveals unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium and diversity. [PMID 16018848] Influence of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C polymorphism on the alcohol-cardiovascular disease association (from the Framingham Offspring Study). [PMID 16685648] Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. [PMID 17185388] Multiple ADH genes modulate risk for drug dependence in both African- and European-Americans. [PMID 17273965] Evidence of positive selection on a class I ADH locus. [PMID 18331377] Association of ADH and ALDH genes with alcohol dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence (IASPSAD) sample. [PMID 18936436] Prevalence in the United States of selected candidate gene variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994. [PMID 18996923] Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. [PMID 19124506] Common genetic variation in candidate genes and susceptibility to subtypes of breast cancer . [PMID 19189524] [Distribution of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1C) genotypes in subjects with tobacco smoke-associated laryngeal cancer]. [PMID 19193628] ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo. [PMID 19298322] Associations and interactions between SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes and alcoholism phenotypes in European Americans. [PMID 19447389] Genetic variation of alcohol dehydrogenase type 1C (ADH1C), alcohol consumption, and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors: results from the IMMIDIET study. [PMID 19526455] ADH1A variation predisposes to personality traits and substance dependence. [PMID 21303386] Alcohol-metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms in the Basque Country, Morocco, and Ecuador. [PMID 21351086] Shortened telomeres in individuals with abuse in alcohol consumption. [PMID 21917409] Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers. [PMID 22325912] Determination of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C polymorphisms on alcohol dependence in Turkey. [PMID 22978509] Convergence of Genome-Wide Association and Candidate Gene Studies for Alcoholism [PMID 23895337] Alcohol-Metabolizing Genes and Alcohol Phenotypes in an Israeli Household Sample [PMID 22476623] Further clarification of the contribution of the ADH1C gene to vulnerability of alcoholism and selected liver diseases. [PMID 22560290] A comparison of Val81Met and other polymorphisms of alcohol metabolising genes in patients and controls in Northern Spain. [PMID 22930414] Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. [PMID 23404349] Childhood acute leukemia, maternal beverage intake during pregnancy, and metabolic polymorphisms. [PMID 25524923] Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2, alcohol consumption, and the risk of gastric cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study [PMID 26842247] Association Study of Gene Polymorphisms in GABA, Serotonin, Dopamine, and Alcohol Metabolism Pathways with Alcohol Dependence in Taiwanese Han Men.