A strong association between rs689, a SNP within the insulin INS gene, has been reported with type-1 diabetes [PMID 15220214]

Several studies (including [PMID 17554300]) have mentioned replicating this result, although without mentioning specific risk odds.

[PMID 19956106] Analysis of 19 genes for association with type I diabetes in the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium families

[PMID 16595598] The INS VNTR locus does not associate with smallness for gestational age (SGA) but interacts with SGA to increase insulin resistance in young adults.

[PMID 17334650] A type 1 diabetes subgroup with a female bias is characterised by failure in tolerance to thyroid peroxidase at an early age and a strong association with the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 gene.

[PMID 17554260] Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes.

[PMID 17606874] Association of the vitamin D metabolism gene CYP27B1 with type 1 diabetes.

[PMID 17667841] Association between paternally inherited haplotypes upstream of the insulin gene and umbilical cord IGF-II levels.

[PMID 17683561] The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes.

[PMID 17700581] Association between small for gestational age and paternally inherited 5' insulin haplotypes.

[PMID 18085551] Haplotype analysis of the IGF2-INS-TH gene cluster in Parkinson's disease.

[PMID 18252225] On the use of general control samples for genome-wide association studies: genetic matching highlights causal variants.

[PMID 18292987] Joint effects of HLA, INS, PTPN22 and CTLA4 genes on the risk of type 1 diabetes.

[PMID 18310307] Genetic similarities between latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

[PMID 18375961] Polymorphism of genes related to insulin sensitivity and the risk of biliary tract cancer and biliary stone: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China.

[PMID 18556337] Impact of diabetes susceptibility loci on progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes in at-risk individuals of the diabetes prevention trial-type 1 (DPT-1).

[PMID 18940880] Association of type 1 diabetes with two Loci on 12q13 and 16p13 and the influence coexisting thyroid autoimmunity in Japanese.

[PMID 19020323] Genotype score in addition to common risk factors for prediction of type 2 diabetes.

[PMID 19073967] Shared and distinct genetic variants in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.

[PMID 19168599] Type 1 diabetes in the BB rat: a polygenic disease.

[PMID 19188433] Do non-HLA genes influence development of persistent islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes?

[PMID 19434426] Common polymorphic variation in the genetically diverse African insulin gene and its association with size at birth.

[PMID 19956109] The Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium 'Rapid Response' family-based candidate gene study: strategy, genes selection, and main outcome.

[PMID 20144318] A strategy for analyzing gene-nutrient interactions in type 2 diabetes.

[PMID 20628762] Allele-specific recognition of the 3' splice site of INS intron 1.

[PMID 21278902] Genetic risk profiling for prediction of type 2 diabetes.

[PMID 22511809] Association of variants in HLA-DQA1-DQB1, PTPN22, INS, and CTLA4 with GAD autoantibodies and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults of the Botnia Prospective Study.

[PMID 23721563] Associations of polymorphisms in non-HLA loci with autoantibodies at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: INS and IKZF4 associate with insulin autoantibodies

[PMID 24275212] The role of tyrosine hydroxylase gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia

[PMID 23835325] Patterns of beta-cell autoantibody appearance and genetic associations during the first years of life.


Parent Gene: INS, INS-IGF2

Importance: 3
Less common allele: A = 35%
More common allele: T = 65%
My Genotype: Log In
Risk Allele: A