- The T allele is usually associated with an increased risk of organophosphate toxicity compared to the C allele (R, R2)
- T is 2X more efficient at breaking down oxidized lipids (such as oxLDL) (R – body of study).
- TT detoxes organophosphate pesticides including diazoxon, soman and sarin better (R, R2), whereas CC breaks down paraoxon better (R, R2)
- C lowered arylesterase activity in people with Autism, but not in healthy people (R).
The T (minor) allele is associated with:
- 2.3X higher risk of coronary heart disease (TT)
- Increased risk of vascular dementia (TT) (R)
- Increased risk of kidney disease (TT).
- Ischemic heart disease (TT) (R).
- Kidney disease (TT) (R).
- Male infertility (TT/TC) (R).
The C (major) allele is associated with:
- Prenatally pesticide-exposed children carrying the C allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI, blood pressure, leptin and IGF-1 at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with TT, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Only exposed children with the C allele developed adverse heart disease risk profiles thought to be associated with the C allele. (R)
- Increased risk of Alzheimers Disease (CC) (R)
- Increased anxiety (CC) (R).
- Increased protection against heart disease in some studies but associated with heart disease in others (CC)
- Heart disease. A weak association between the C allele and increased heart disease risk has been confirmed in most case-control studies, and is supported by meta-analyses (R, R2, R3, R4). In combination with low serum HDL and the CC markedly increased the risk of heart disease (R).
- Increased diabetes risk (CC) (R). Type 2 diabetics with either one or two C alleles had a 9 fold higher risk of heart disease compared with TT (R).
The T encodes a glutamine (“Q”), C encodes an arginine (“R”) (R).