- Overall, the evidence points to lower enzyme activity for GG (R).
- SOD2 or MnSOD was 33% higher in GA or AA compared to GG in cellular studies (R).
- GG resulted in 39% lower SOD2 activity in red blood cells of 231 young adults (R) and human liver cells (R).
- However, people with GG had on average catalase activity of 18.1 k/g Hb higher than AA (Median= 86.3) (R).
The G (minor) allele is associated with:
- 70% increased likelihood to get prostate cancer and 2.7X more likely to have a high grade prostate tumor (GG) (R).
- More oxidative stress in the body (GG) (R).
- Greater risk for noise induced hearing loss (GG) (R). AG is also at a higher risk of Noise induced hearing loss (R, R, R).
- 3X more likely to have ear toxicity from cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug (R).
- 2X greater risk of infertility in Chinese population and had high levels of sperm DNA damage and infertility (GG) (R).
- Less capable of handling Pthalates (GG) (R).
- Higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men who had low long-term Lycopene levels (GG). These results are consistent with findings from earlier studies that reported when antioxidant status is low, GG may be associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (R).
- Less gray matter in alcoholics. Lower gray matter volume in alcoholics below the median alcohol consumption (p=0.03) but not in alcoholics above this level (GG or GA) (R)
- Breast cancer (R)
- Colorectal cancer (R)
- Hypertension (R)
- Alzheimer's disease (R)
- Parkinson's disease (R)
- Motor neuron disease (R)
The A (major) allele is associated with:
- More Kidney problems in Type 1 Diabetes (A) (R).
- Cardiomyopathy (R)
- Atherosclerosis (R)
- Lung cancer (R)
- Impaired recovery following intense exercise [R, R]
- Also known as Val16Ala manganese superoxide dismutase, or A16V.