Key regulator of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) required to limit calcium uptake by MCU when cytoplasmic calcium is low (PubMed:24503055, PubMed:24560927, PubMed:26903221). MICU1 and MICU2 form a disulfide-linked heterodimer that stimulate and inhibit MCU activity, depending on the concentration of calcium (PubMed:24560927). MICU2 acts as a gatekeeper of MCU that senses calcium level via its EF-hand domains: prevents channel opening at resting calcium, avoiding energy dissipation and cell-death triggering (PubMed:24560927).
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