Summary of FGFR2
The FGFR2 gene encodes a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. The protein is involved in important processes such as cell division, regulation of cell growth and maturation, formation of blood vessels, wound healing, and embryonic development (R).
Mutations can lead to a higher risk of cancer and other immune diseases (R).
The Function of FGFR2
Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.
Recommended name:Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
Keratinocyte growth factor receptor
CD antigen CD332
- RS10736303 (FGFR2) ??
- RS1078806 (FGFR2) ??
- RS11199914 (FGFR2) ??
- RS11200014 (FGFR2) ??
- RS1219648 (FGFR2) ??
- RS17102287 (FGFR2) ??
- RS17601696 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2420946 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2912774 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2912780 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2912791 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2981575 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2981578 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2981579 (FGFR2) ??
- RS2981582 (FGFR2) ??
- RS3135730 (FGFR2) ??
- RS3135753 (FGFR2) ??
- RS3135758 (FGFR2) ??
- RS3750817 (FGFR2) ??
- RS755793 (FGFR2) ??
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Top Gene-Substance Interactions
FGFR2 Interacts with These Diseases
Substances That Increase FGFR2
Substances That Decrease FGFR2
Apert syndrome At least seven mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found to cause Apert syndrome, a condition that causes premature closure of the bones of the skull (craniosynostosis), leading to a misshapen head and distinctive facial features, and abnormalities of the fingers and toes. Nearly all cases of Apert syndrome are caused by one of two mutations in the FGFR2 gene. These mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the FGFR2 protein, which alters the protein's 3-dimensional structure. One mutation replaces the amino acid serine with the amino acid tryptophan at protein position 252 (written as Ser252Trp). The other mutation replaces the amino acid proline with the amino acid arginine at position 253 (written as Pro253Arg). The altered FGFR2 protein appears to cause stronger signaling, which promotes the premature fusion of bones in the skull, hands, and feet. Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome At least three mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found to cause Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, a condition that causes craniosynostosis, leading to a misshapen head and distinctive facial features, and a skin abnormality called cutis gyrata. The most common mutation replaces the amino acid tyrosine with the amino acid cysteine at position 375 in the protein (written as Tyr375Cys). The FGFR2 gene mutations that cause Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome appear to overactivate signaling by the FGFR2 protein, which promotes the premature fusion of bones in the skull. breast cancer Genetics Home Reference provides information about breast cancer . cholangiocarcinoma Genetics Home Reference provides information about cholangiocarcinoma. Crouzon syndrome At least 40 mutations in the FGFR2 gene can cause Crouzon syndrome, a condition that causes craniosynostosis, leading to a misshapen head and distinctive facial features. Most of the mutations that cause Crouzon syndrome change single DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in the FGFR2 gene. Insertions and deletions of a small number of nucleotides are also known to cause the disorder. These mutations in FGFR2 appear to overactivate signaling by the FGFR2 protein, which promotes premature fusion of bones in the skull. epidermal nevus Genetics Home Reference provides information about epidermal nevus. Jackson-Weiss syndrome At least six mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found to cause Jackson-Weiss syndrome. This condition causes craniosynostosis, leading to a misshapen head and distinctive facial features, and foot abnormalities. Each of the mutations changes a single amino acid in a region of the FGFR2 protein known as the IgIII domain, which is critical for receiving signals and interacting with growth factors. The mutations appear to overactivate signaling by the FGFR2 protein, which promotes premature fusion of skull bones and affects the development of bones in the feet. lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome At least two mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been found to cause lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome. These mutations reduce the FGFR2 receptor protein's ability to trigger chemical reactions within cells when it binds to its growth factor. A mutation that occurs in some people with LADD syndrome replaces the amino acid alanine with the amino acid threonine at position 628 in the FGFR2 receptor protein (written as Ala628Thr or A628T). The main features of LADD syndrome are abnormal tear production, malformed ears with hearing loss, decreased saliva production, small teeth, and hand deformities. The FGFR2 gene mutations that cause LADD syndrome reduce the function of the receptor protein, resulting in a decrease in cell signaling. These defects in cell signaling disrupt cell maturation and development, which results in abnormal formation of glands in the eyes and mouth, the ears, and the skeleton in people with LADD syndrome. Pfeiffer syndrome More than 25 mutations in the FGFR2 gene can cause Pfeiffer syndrome, a condition that causes craniosynostosis, leading to a misshapen head and distinctive facial features, and hand and foot abnormalities. Several of the mutations that cause this condition change the number of cysteine amino acids in a critical region of the FGFR2 protein known as the IgIII domain. The remaining mutations affect amino acids other than cysteine or result in an FGFR2 protein that is missing one or more amino acids. These mutations appear to overactivate signaling by the FGFR2 protein, which promotes premature fusion of skull bones and affects the development of bones in the hands and feet. prostate cancer Genetics Home Reference provides information about prostate cancer. cancers Alterations in the activity (expression) of the FGFR2 gene are associated with certain cancers. The altered gene expression may enhance several cancer-related events such as cell division (proliferation), cell movement, and the development of new blood vessels that nourish a growing tumor. The FGFR2 gene is abnormally active (overexpressed) in certain types of stomach cancers, and this amplification is associated with a poor disease outcome. Abnormal expression of the FGFR2 gene is also found in patients with prostate cancer. A shift in the expression of two specific FGFR2 isoforms, IIIb and IIIc, appears to correlate with prostate cancer progression. This change in expression is complex, however, and varies depending on the type of prostate tumor. More advanced tumors may show an increase in the IIIb isoform, while other prostate tumors show a decrease in IIIb but an increase in IIIc. Altered FGFR2 gene expression is also associated with ovarian, breast, cervical, pancreatic, and head and neck cancers.
The FGFR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are involved in important processes such as cell division, regulation of cell growth and maturation, formation of blood vessels, wound healing, and embryonic development. The FGFR2 protein spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein remains inside the cell and the other end projects from the outer surface of the cell. This positioning allows the FGFR2 protein to interact with specific growth factors outside the cell and to receive signals that help the cell respond to its environment. When growth factors attach to the FGFR2 protein, the receptor triggers a cascade of chemical reactions inside the cell that instruct the cell to undergo certain changes, such as maturing to take on specialized functions. The FGFR2 protein plays an important role in bone growth, particularly during embryonic development. For example, this protein signals certain immature cells in the developing embryo to become bone cells in the head, hands, feet, and other tissues. There are several slightly different versions (isoforms) of the FGFR2 protein. Specific patterns of these isoforms are found in the body's tissues, and these patterns may change throughout growth and development.
Conditions with Increased Gene Activity
|Condition||Change (log2fold)||Comparison||Species||Experimental variables||Experiment name|
Conditions with Decreased Gene Activity
|Condition||Change (log2fold)||Comparison||Species||Experimental variables||Experiment name|
The following transcription factors affect gene expression:
Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 523 and ARQ 069; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibit autophosphorylation.
- Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activity
- Fibroblast Growth Factor-Activated Receptor Activity
- Ras Guanyl-Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activity
- Atp Binding
- Heparin Binding
- 1-Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activity
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Binding
- Protein Homodimerization Activity
- Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate 3-Kinase Activity
- Negative Regulation Of Transcription From Rna Polymerase Ii Promoter
- Mapk Cascade
- Ureteric Bud Development
- In Utero Embryonic Development
- Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition
- Positive Regulation Of Mesenchymal Cell Proliferation
- Outflow Tract Septum Morphogenesis
- Membranous Septum Morphogenesis
- Apoptotic Process
- Cell-Cell Signaling
- Positive Regulation Of Cell Proliferation
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Regulation Of Smoothened Signaling Pathway
- Post-Embryonic Development
- Embryonic Pattern Specification
- Animal Organ Morphogenesis
- Regulation Of Cell Fate Commitment
- Positive Regulation Of Phospholipase Activity
- Regulation Of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling
- Morphogenesis Of Embryonic Epithelium
- Peptidyl-Tyrosine Phosphorylation
- Orbitofrontal Cortex Development
- Ventricular Zone Neuroblast Division
- Pyramidal Neuron Development
- Gland Morphogenesis
- Positive Regulation Of Wnt Signaling Pathway
- Bone Mineralization
- Lung Development
- Epithelial Cell Differentiation
- Midbrain Development
- Otic Vesicle Formation
- Hair Follicle Morphogenesis
- Lacrimal Gland Development
- Regulation Of Osteoblast Proliferation
- Multicellular Organism Growth
- Organ Growth
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Involved In Negative Regulation Of Apoptotic Process In Bone Marrow
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Involved In Hemopoiesis
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Involved In Positive Regulation Of Cell Proliferation In Bone Marrow
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Involved In Orbitofrontal Cortex Development
- Regulation Of Multicellular Organism Growth
- Regulation Of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway
- Inner Ear Morphogenesis
- Positive Regulation Of Mapk Cascade
- Cell Fate Commitment
- Regulation Of Osteoblast Differentiation
- Positive Regulation Of Cell Cycle
- Positive Regulation Of Transcription From Rna Polymerase Ii Promoter
- Protein Autophosphorylation
- Phosphatidylinositol-Mediated Signaling
- Lung Alveolus Development
- Mesodermal Cell Differentiation
- Embryonic Digestive Tract Morphogenesis
- Embryonic Organ Morphogenesis
- Digestive Tract Development
- Embryonic Organ Development
- Reproductive Structure Development
- Positive Regulation Of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation
- Embryonic Cranial Skeleton Morphogenesis
- Skeletal System Morphogenesis
- Epidermis Morphogenesis
- Branching Morphogenesis Of A Nerve
- Mesenchymal Cell Differentiation
- Positive Regulation Of Epithelial Cell Proliferation
- Negative Regulation Of Epithelial Cell Proliferation
- Regulation Of Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation
- Positive Regulation Of Cell Division
- Ventricular Cardiac Muscle Tissue Morphogenesis
- Positive Regulation Of Cardiac Muscle Cell Proliferation
- Limb Bud Formation
- Bone Development
- Bone Morphogenesis
- Branching Involved In Prostate Gland Morphogenesis
- Branching Involved In Salivary Gland Morphogenesis
- Bud Elongation Involved In Lung Branching
- Lung Lobe Morphogenesis
- Lung-Associated Mesenchyme Development
- Positive Regulation Of Epithelial Cell Proliferation Involved In Lung Morphogenesis
- Prostate Gland Morphogenesis
- Prostate Epithelial Cord Elongation
- Prostate Epithelial Cord Arborization Involved In Prostate Glandular Acinus Morphogenesis
- Squamous Basal Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation Involved In Prostate Gland Acinus Development
- Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Involved In Mammary Gland Specification
- Lateral Sprouting From An Epithelium
- Mammary Gland Bud Formation
- Epithelial Cell Proliferation Involved In Salivary Gland Morphogenesis
- Branch Elongation Involved In Salivary Gland Morphogenesis
- Branching Involved In Labyrinthine Layer Morphogenesis
- Regulation Of Branching Involved In Prostate Gland Morphogenesis
- Regulation Of Morphogenesis Of A Branching Structure
- Mesenchymal Cell Differentiation Involved In Lung Development
- Mesenchymal Cell Proliferation Involved In Lung Development
- Regulation Of Erk1 And Erk2 Cascade
- Positive Regulation Of Erk1 And Erk2 Cascade
- Positive Regulation Of Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway