Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Zolpidem is converted to inactive metabolites in the liver. Route of Elimination: Zolpidem tartrate tablets are converted to inactive metabolites that are eliminated primarily by renal excretion. Half Life: 2.6 hours
- Uses/Sources: For the short-term treatment of insomnia.
- Health Effects: They cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive.
- Symptoms: Symptoms of overdose include impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to light coma.
- Treatment: General symptomatic and supportive measures should be used along with immediate gastric lavage where appropriate. Intravenous fluids should be administered as needed. sedative hypnotic effect was shown to be reduced by flumazenil and therefore may be useful; however, flumazenil administration may contribute to the appearance of neurological symptoms (convulsions). As in all cases of drug overdose, respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and other appropriate signs should be monitored and general supportive measures employed. Hypotension and CNS depression should be monitored and treated by appropriate medical intervention. Sedating drugs should be withheld following zolpidem overdosage, even if excitation occurs. The value of dialysis in the treatment of overdosage has not been determined, although hemodialysis studies in patients with renal failure receiving therapeutic doses have demonstrated that zolpidem is not dialyzable. (L1712)
- Route of Exposure: Oral. Zolpidem is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.
- Carcinogenicity: No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
- Toxicity: LD50: 695 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (A308)
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
|Zolpidem modulates the alpha-subunit, known as the benzodiazepine receptor, within the GABAA receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Unlike the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively interact with all three alpha-receptor subtypes, Zolpidem preferentially binds to the alpha-1 receptor.||
Zolpidem Interacts with Diseases
|Disease||Inference Score||References/Inference Genes|
|Autism spectrum disorder||7.19||
|AUTISM, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, X-LINKED 3||6.49|
|Encephalopathy, Neonatal Severe, Due To Mecp2 Mutations||6.49||
|Mental Retardation, X-Linked 79||6.49|
|Generalized Epilepsy With Febrile Seizures Plus, Type 3||6.3||
|Lubs X-linked mental retardation syndrome||6.14|
|Drug Metabolism, Poor, CYP2D6-Related||5.92|
|Isodicentric Chromosome 15 Syndrome||5.91||