Top Gene Interactions
Testosterone Health Effects
- Metabolism: Testosterone is metabolized to 17-keto steroids through two different pathways. The major active metabolites are estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Route of Elimination: About 90% of a dose of testosterone given intramuscularly is excreted in the urine as glucuronic and sulfuric acid conjugates of testosterone and its metabolites; about 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces, mostly in the unconjugated form. Half Life: 10-100 minutes
- Uses/Sources: To be used as hormone replacement or substitution of diminished or absent endogenous testosterone. Use in males: For management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism, hypogonadism associated with HIV infection, and male climacteric (andopause). Use in females: For palliative treatment of androgen-responsive, advanced, inoperable, metastatis (skeletal) carcinoma of the breast in women who are 1-5 years postmenopausal; testosterone esters may be used in combination with estrogens in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause in women who do not respond to adequately to estrogen therapy alone.
- Health Effects: In women, excess testosterone may cause decreased breast size, a deep voice, increased genital size, irregular periods, oily skin, and unnatural hair growth. In men, excess testosterone may cause aggression, breast tenderness or enlargement, decreased testes size, and urinary urgency. Chronically high levels of testosterone are associated with at least 2 inborn errors of metabolism including: Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 and Aromatase deficiency.
- Symptoms: In women, testosterone may cause decreased breast size, a deep voice, increased genital size, irregular periods, oily skin, and unnatural hair growth. In men, excess testosterone may cause aggression, premature baldness, breast tenderness or enlargement, decreased testes size, and urinary urgency.
- Route of Exposure: Endogenous, Injection
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Estrogen receptor beta
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Cytochrome P450 19A1
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase
Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1
Sex hormone-binding globulin