The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS. Progestational hormone secreted by corpus luteum during menstrual cycle. Also found in the gonads and haemolymph of crustaceans, e.g. Artemia, Euphosia, Homarus, Pandalus and Penaeus spp (CCD)
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids. Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. Progesterone belongs to a class of hormones called progestagens, and is the major naturally occurring human progestagen. During implantation and gestation, progesterone appears to decrease the maternal immune response to allow for the acceptance of the pregnancy. Progesterone decreases contractility of the uterine smooth muscle. The fetus metabolizes placental progesterone in the production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids. A drop in progesterone levels is possibly one step that facilitates the onset of labor. In addition progesterone inhibits lactation during pregnancy. The fall in progesterone levels following delivery is one of the triggers for milk production.
Progesterone is Found in These Foods
Top Gene Interactions
Progesterone is metabolized primarily by the liver largely to pregnanediols and pregnanolones. Route of Elimination: The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the urine and bile. Progesterone metabolites which are excreted in the bile may undergo enterohepatic recycling or may be excreted in the feces. Progesterone metabolites are excreted mainly by the kidneys. Half Life: 34.8-55.13 hours
For progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency and for the treatment of secondary amenorrhea. Also used for the reduction of the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and the attendant risk of endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement therapy, as well as treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology such as fibroids or uterine cancer.
- Health Effects: Chronically high levels of progesterone are associated with at least 3 inborn errors of metabolism including: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 and Adrenal hyperplasia type 5.
- Route of Exposure:
Progesterone absorption is prolonged with an absorption half-life of approximately 25-50 hours.
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Estrogen receptor beta
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase
Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Sex hormone-binding globulin
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Sterol O-acyltransferase 1
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Cytochrome P450 2C18
Bile salt export pump
Bile acid receptor
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Solute carrier family 22 member 3