Present in Aegle marmelos (bael fruit) and seeds of Pastinaca sativa (parsnip) Imperatorin is a furocoumarin and a phytochemical that has been isolated from Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae). It is biosynthesized from umbelliferone, a coumarin derivative.
Imperatorin is found in anise. Imperatorin is present in Aegle marmelos (bael fruit) and seeds of Pastinaca sativa (parsnip).Imperatorin is a furocoumarin and a phytochemical that has been isolated from Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae). It is biosynthesized from umbelliferone, a coumarin derivative. Imperatorin has been shown to exhibit anti-hypertrophic and anti-convulsant functions (A7784, A7785). Imperatorin belongs to the family of Furanocoumarins. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a furan ring fused to a coumarin moeity.
Top Gene Interactions
Imperatorin Health Effects
- Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
- Anti aflatoxin
- Anti aggregant
- Anti alopecic
- Anti convulsant
- Anti inflammatory
- Anti leukodermic
- Anti mitotic
- Anti mutagenic
- Anti platelet
- Antitumor promoter
- Anti vitiligic
- Calcium antagonist
- Cancer preventive
- Cytochrome-P450 inhibitor
- Diabetic-macular-edema inhibitor
- Metabolism: Paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of OP exposure.
- Health Effects: Acute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides. The furocoumarin 8-methoxypsoralen is carcinogenic to humans, and possibly 5-methoxypsoralen as well (L135). There is some evidence from mouse studies that other furocoumarins are carcinogenic when combined with exposure to UVA radiation (A15105). The SKLM regards the additional risk of skin cancer arising from the consumption of typical quantities of furocoumarin-containing foods, which remain significantly below the range of phototoxic doses, as insignificant. However, the consumption of phototoxic quantities cannot be ruled out for certain foods, particularly celery and parsnips, that may lead to significant increases in furocoumarin concentrations, depending on the storage, processing and production conditions. (L2157) Furocoumarin photochemotherapy is known to induce a number of side-effects including erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, and premature aging of skin. All photobiological effects of furocoumarins result from their photochemical reactions. Because many dietary or water soluble furocoumarins are strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450s, they will also cause adverse drug reactions when taken with other drugs. Limited evidence of carcinogenic effect. (L579)
- Symptoms: Symptoms of low dose exposure include excessive salivation and eye-watering. Acute dose symptoms include severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Hypertension, hypoglycemia, anxiety, headache, tremor and ataxia may also result.
- Treatment: If the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Imperatorin Interacts with Diseases
|Disease||Inference Score||References/Inference Genes|
|Squamous cell carcinoma||17.5||
|Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental||13.15||
|Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental||13.11||
|Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||12.4||
|Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 6||10.35||
|Radiation Injuries, Experimental||9.93||
|Vascular System Injuries||9.83||
|Acute kidney injury||9.61||
|Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions||9.42|