Top Gene Interactions
- Metabolism: Liver and the reticulo-endothelial system are the sites of biotransformation. The metabolic fate of heparin is not well understood. Route of Elimination: The drug appears to be removed mainly by the reticuloendothelial system. A small fraction of unchanged heparin also appears to be excreted in urine. Heparin cannot be eliminated by hemodialysis. Half Life: 1.5 hours. The plasma half-life of heparin increases from about 60 minutes with a 100 unit/kg dose to about 150 minutes with a 400 unit/kg dose.
- Uses/Sources: Unfractionated heparin is indicated for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, prevention of post-operative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and prevention of clotting in arterial and cardiac surgery. In cardiology, it is used to prevent embolisms in patients with atrial fibrillation and as an adjunct antithrombin therapy in patients with unstable angina and/or non-Q wave myocardial infarctions (i.e. non-ST elevated acute coronary artery syndrome) who are on platelet glycoprotein (IIb/IIIa) receptor inhibitors. Additionally, it is used to prevent clotting during dialysis and surgical procedures, maintain the patency of intravenous injection devices and prevent in vitro coagulation of blood transfusions and in blood samples drawn for laboratory values.
- Health Effects: A serious side-effect of heparin is heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets a target of immunological response, resulting in the degradation of platelets, which causes thrombocytopenia. This condition is usually reversed on discontinuation, and in general can be avoided with the use of synthetic heparins. Also, a benign form of thrombocytopenia is associated with early heparin use, which resolves without stopping heparin. Two nonhemorrhagic side-effects of heparin treatment are known. The first is elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, which has been reported in as many as 80% of patients receiving heparin. This abnormality is not associated with liver dysfunction, and it disappears after the drug is discontinued. The other complication is hyperkalemia, which occurs in 5 to 10% of patients receiving heparin, and is the result of heparin-induced aldosterone suppression. The hyperkalemia can appear within a few days after the onset of heparin therapy. More rarely, the side-effects alopecia and osteoporosis can occur with chronic use. As with many drugs, overdoses of heparin can be fatal. In September 2006, heparin received worldwide publicity when three prematurely born infants died after they were mistakenly given overdoses of heparin at an Indianapolis hospital. (Wikipedia)
- Symptoms: Heparin sodium - Mouse, median lethal dose greater than 5000 mg/kg. Another side effect is heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT syndrome). HIT is caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets form clots within the blood vessels, thereby using up coagulation factors
- Treatment: Protamine sulfate (1 mg per 100 units of heparin that had been given over the past four hours) has been given to counteract the anticoagulant effect of heparin. (Wikipedia)
- Route of Exposure: Intravenous, Irrigation, Subcutaneous, Intraperitoneal injection Heparin must be given parenterally as it is not absorbed through the gastrointestinal mucosa. It is usually given by iv infusion or deep sc injection. The onset of action is immediate after iv injection but can be delayed 20 to 60 minutes following sc injection. Plasma heparin concentrations may be increased and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTTs) may be more prolonged in geriatric adults (older than 60 years of age) compared with younger adults.
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
Fibroblast growth factor 2
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
Vascular endothelial growth factor A
Platelet factor 4
Fibroblast growth factor 19
Fibroblast growth factor 4
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4
Coagulation factor IX
Coagulation factor X
|The mechanism of action of heparin is antithrombin-dependent. It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of heparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Heparin interacts with antithrombin III, prothrombin and factor X.||