A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717) A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
Formaldehyde is a highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717) -- Pubchem; The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal), is a gas with a pungent smell. It is the simplest aldehyde. Its chemical formula is H2CO. Formaldehyde was first synthesized by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov in 1859 but was conclusively identified by August Wilhelm van Hofmann in 1867. Although formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature, it is readily soluble in water, and it is most commonly sold as a 37% solution in water called by trade names such as formalin or formol. In water, formaldehyde polymerizes, and formalin actually contains very little formaldehyde in the form of H2CO monomer. Usually, these solutions contain a few percent methanol to limit the extent of polymerization. Formaldehyde exhibits most of the general chemical properties of the aldehydes, except that is generally more reactive than other aldehydes. Formaldehyde is a potent electrophile. It can participate in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with aromatic compounds and can undergo electrophilic addition reactions with alkenes. In the presence of basic catalysts, formaldehyde undergoes a Cannizaro reaction to produce formic acid and methanol. Because formaldehyde resins are used in many construction materials, including plywood, carpet, and spray-on insulating foams, and because these resins slowly give off formaldehyde over time, formaldehyde is one of the more common indoor air pollutants. At concentrations above 0.1 mg/kg in air, inhaled formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes, headache, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing. -- Wikipedia.
Top Gene Interactions
Formaldehyde Health Effects
- Metabolism: Formaldehyde may be absorbed following inhalation, oral, or dermal exposure. It is an essential metabolic intermediate in all cells and is produced during the normal metabolism of serine, glycine, methionine, and choline and also by the demethylation of N-, S-, and O-methyl compounds. Exogenous formaldehyde is metabolized to formate by the enzyme formaldehyde dehydrogenase at the initial site of contact. After oxidation of formaldehyde to formate, the carbon atom is further oxidized to carbon dioxide or incorporated into purines, thymidine, and amino acids via tetrahydrofolatedependent one-carbon biosynthetic pathways. Formaldehyde is not stored in the body and is excreted in the urine (primarily as formic acid), incorporated into other cellular molecules, or exhaled as carbon dioxide. (L962)
- Uses/Sources: Formaldehyde is used in the production of fertilizer, paper, plywood, and urea-formaldehyde resins. It is also also used as a preservative in some foods and in many products used around the house, such as antiseptics, medicines, and cosmetics. (L962)
- Health Effects: Drinking large amounts of formaldehyde can cause severe pain, vomiting, coma, and possible death. Formaldehyde is also a known human carcinogen. (L962)
- Symptoms: Low levels of formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. (L962)
- Route of Exposure: Oral (L962) ; inhalation (L962) ; dermal (L962)
- Carcinogenicity: 1, carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
- Toxicity: LD50: 300 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (T13) LD50: 42 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (T13) LD50: 87 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (T13) LD50: 16 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (T29) LC50: 0.414 mg/L over 4 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (A115)
- Minimum Risk Level: Acute Inhalation: 0.04 ppm (L134) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.03 ppm (L134) Chronic Inhalation: 0.008 ppm (L134) Intermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (L134)
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
|Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1||
|Formaldehyde is known to form cross links between protein and DNA and undergo metabolic incorporation into macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins). (L962)||