One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action. Occurs in several higher plants, such as banana (Musa sapientum) As a member of the catecholamine family, dopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and then epinephrine (adrenaline) in the biosynthetic pathways for these neurotransmitters.
One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action. [PubChem]
Dopamine is Found in These Foods
Top Gene Interactions
Dopamine Health Effects
- Metabolism: Biotransformation of dopamine proceeds rapidly to yield the principal excretion products, 3-4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid (homovanillic acid, HVA). Route of Elimination: It has been reported that about 80% of the drug is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as HVA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates and as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. A very small portion is excreted unchanged. Half Life: 2 minutes
- Uses/Sources: For the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure
- Health Effects: Chronically high levels of dopamine are associated with at least 2 inborn errors of metabolism including: Aromatic L-Amino acid Decarboxylase Deficiency and Norepinephrine deficiency.
- Route of Exposure: Dopamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine.
- Carcinogenicity: No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
- Toxicity: LD<sub>50</sub> oral mice = 1460 mg/kg, LD<sub>50</sub> oral rats = 1780 mg/kg
Mechanism of Action
|Target Name||Mechanism of Action||References|
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7
D(2) dopamine receptor
D(3) dopamine receptor
D(4) dopamine receptor
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1F
D(1A) dopamine receptor
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn
D(1) dopamine receptor