Definition

A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472) Isol. from the mushroom Xerocomus nigromaculatus of unknown palatability Cytarabine is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite used in the treatment of several forms of leukemia including acute myelogenous leukemia and meningeal leukemia. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances becoming incorporated in to DNA during the 'S' phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Cytarabine is metabolized intracellularly into its active triphosphate form (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). This metabolite then damages DNA by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of alpha-DNA polymerase, inhibition of DNA repair through an effect on beta-DNA polymerase, and incorporation into DNA. The latter mechanism is probably the most important. Cytotoxicity is highly specific for the S phase of the cell cycle.; Cytarabine, or cytosine arabinoside, is a chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is also known as ara C.; Cytosine arabinoside is an antimetabolic agent with the chemical name of 1?-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Its mode of action is due to its rapid conversion into cytosine arabinoside triphosphate, which damages DNA when the cell cycle holds in the S phase (synthesis of DNA). Rapidly dividing cells, which require DNA replication for mitosis, are therefore most affected. Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA and RNA polymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis.

Description

A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)

Top Gene Interactions

Related Pathways

General Information

Toxicity

Mechanism of Action

Cytarabine Interacts with Diseases

Cytarabine Interacts with Genes