Definition

An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported. Widely distributed in plants including algae, fungi and many higher plants. Flavouring ingredient Beta-alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.; Even though much weaker than glycine (and thus with a debated role as a physiological transmitter), ?-alanine is an agonist next in activity to the cognate ligant glycine itself, for strychnine-sensitive inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) (the agonist order: glycine >> ?-alanine > taurine >> alanine, L-serine > proline).; L-Histidine, with a pKa of 6.1 is a relatively weak buffer over the physiological intramuscular pH range. However, when bound to other amino acids this increases nearer to 6.8-7.0. In particular, when bound to ?-alanine the pKa value is 6.83, making this a very efficient intramuscular buffer. Furthermore, because of the position of the beta amino group, ?-alanine dipeptides are not incorporated proteins and thus can be stored at relatively high concentrations (millimolar). Occurring at 17-25 mmol/kg (dry muscle), carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is an important intramuscular buffer, constituting 10-20% of the total buffering capacity in type I and II muscle fibres.; ?-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which are amino acids in which the amino group is at the ?-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1). The IUPAC name for ?-alanine would be 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its normal counterpart, L-?-alanine, ?-alanine has no chiral center.; ?-Alanine is not used in the biosynthesis of any major proteins or enzymes. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, ?-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid.

Description

Beta-alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.

Related Pathways

Beta-Alanine Health Effects

General Information

Mechanism of Action